Steenbuck are territorial animals, living solitary and in pairs, consequently they do not appear to be abundant, though typically 1 to 3 would be spotted per evening of predator calling on sheep ranches. Most farmers care for them, and would prefer them not being hunted.

Steenbuck usually live in pairs holding and protecting a territory by scent marking and dung heaps. They are widespread throughout Southern Africa but do not like high barren rocky altitudes. In some areas where regular hunting takes place they become nocturnal and can only be found early in the morning and at dusk. At times they will hide when pursued and burst away when one approaches near.

Both sexes are territorial and solitary animals, being seen together only during the mating period. They have pre-orbital glands, but these are not used for territorial demarcation. Instead, Steenbuck use their intermandibular gland, situated between the two halves of the lower jaw, for that effect. Steenbuck are diurnal animals and do not depend on availability of water. They drink in very rare occasions. Only males have horns, and they weigh up to 12kg and live up to about 10 years.

Steenbuck are mainly browsers. One single calf is born after a gestation period of about 6 months. The calf will hide for the first couple of months of his life in bushes and abandoned holes. They start following their mother at the age of 4 months. On reaching maturity, at about 12 months, each one goes is own way.